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Introduction

The MSc program in chemistry was launched in spring 2003 by the department. It was an outcome of the realization that there are many groups of students who wish to improve their qualifications, but facilities are not available to them in the country. Among them are in-service teachers, industrial workers, employees of research organizations and many of those fresh graduates who could not get admission in national universities or who took up jobs to serve their families. Thus it is an important human resource development program of national importance which contributes to development of job skill.
The duration of the MSc program is two years. An academic year consists of two semesters termed as spring and autumn semesters. Admissions are offered in the spring semester. Each year the department admits 25 students through a process based on previous academic record, test and interview. Classes are held in the evening and lab courses are covered in workshops. The department follows chemistry curricula as recommended by the HEC.
To date eleven batches of MSc students have passed out. Successful students are serving in research organizations, colleges and industry. Some students have also been selected by the HEC for scholarship to pursue higher studies leading to PhD.

Eligibility Criteria

B.Sc or BS.Ed Degree (at least 2nd division) with Chemistry as one of the major subject.

Selection Process

Merit based on the marks in F.Sc. & B.Sc., Departmental test and interview.

Duration

2 Years

Medium of Instruction

English

Teaching Methodology

face to face classes 

AIOU Credits Required

64 Credit Hours

1. Analytical Chemistry-I -2573

Course Code: 2573                                                         Credit Hours: 03

Unit 1.             Introduction and Basic Statistical Tools in  Analytical Chemistry

What is analytical chemistry. The methods of quantitative analysis. Statistics in analytical chemistry. Errors in chemical analysis. Sampling and data handling;  Mean, Standard deviation and RSD, Probability, The confidence limit, Rejection of data.

Unit 2.             Chemical Stoichiometry

Chemical stoichiometry and stoichiometric calculations. Calculating molar masses. Ionic equilibria. Common ion effect. Activity and activity co-efficient.

Unit 3.             Gravimetric Methods of Analysis

Types of gravimetric methods. Fundamental operations pertaining to forming and treating the precipitate. Processes of crystal growth. Precipitation equilibria. Gravimetric calculation and selected examples.

Unit 4.             Acids, Bases and Buffer, Acid-Base Titrations

Acid-Base theories and Acid-base equilibria in water. Salts of weak acids and bases. Buffer solution, Buffer capacity and its application.

Acid Base titrations. Types of acid base titrations. Detection of end point and selection of indicators. Construction of titration curves. Calculations

Unit 5.             Complexometric Titrations

Complexation reactions and titrations. End point indicators. Metal EDTA complexes with particular reference to Ca, Mg and Zn complexes. Metal-chelate titration curves and the effect of solution conditions in titration curves.

Unit 6.             Redox Titrations

What are Redox-reactions and electrochemical cells. Standard potentials and half reactions. The Nernst equation. Oxidation-reduction indicators. Visual detection of the end point. Titrations using Permanganate, Dichromate and Cerium(IV) as oxidizing titrant. Iodimetric and Iodometric titrations with selected applications. Potentiometric titration.

Unit 7.             Non-Aqueous Titrations & Karl-Fischer Titrations

Classification of solvents. Typical non-aqueous solvents and titrations. Karl-Fischer Reaction and titrations; based on coulometric and/or volumetric titrations. Karl-Fischer titrator; Merits and demerits of the analysis. Applications.

Unit 8.             Environmental sampling and Analysis

Collecting an air sample, Air sample analysis, water sample collection, watersample analysis, Soil and sediment sampling and analysis, Sample collection and analysis for trace organics and contaminated land sites. .

Unit 9.             Quality Control

Definitions, seven tools for quality control, the concept of quality assurance, quality assurance techniques, calibrations, monitoring and quality reviews, periodical trainings, ISO standards.

Practicals:

1.         To calibrate volume measuring glassware (pipette, burette and flask).

2.         Calibration of electronic analytical balance, conductivity meter and potentiometer.

3.         Gravimetric  determination of sulphate in the given sample.

4.         To determine the amount of nickel in a nichrome sample gravimetrically.

5.         To determine the concentration of a strong acid solution by conductometric titration.

6.         To determine the individual concentration of the acid in the given binary mixture of a strong / weak acid conductometriclly.

7.         To estimate Ca2+ and Mg2+ concentration in drinking water by EDTA complexometric titration method.

8.         To determine pKa for the given set of weak acids by potentiometric method.

9.         To show the independence of solubility on account of undissolved species.

10.       To determine the amount of copper in the given sample iodometrically.

11.       To determine the percentage of iron in iron pyrite ore with potassium dichromate.

12.       To determine the halide ion in the given sample titrimetrically using non-aquous solvent.

13.       To determine trace amount of water in a given sample by Karl-Fischer titration.

Books Recommended:

1.         D.C. Harris, “Quantitative Chemical Analysis”, Freeman & Co. New York, 7th Edition, (2006).

2.         G.D. Christian, “Analytical Chemistry”, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 2004.

3.         D.A. Skoog, D.M. West, F.J. Holler and S.R. Crouch, “Fundamentals of Analytical Chemistry” 8th Edition, Thomson-Brooks/Cole, U.K., (2004).

4.         P.J. Higson, “Analytical Chemistry”, Oxford University Press, inc., New York, 1st Edition, (2004).

5.         R.A. Meyers, Ed., “Encyclopedia of Analytical Chemistry: Applications, Theory and Instrumentation” John Wiley & Sons, New York (2000).

6.         E. Scholz, “Karl-Fischer Titration”, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, (1984).

2. Physical Chemistry-I-2575

Course Code: 2575                                                         Credit Hours: 03

Unit 1.             Chemical Kinetics I

Introduction. The rates of chemical reactions. Rate laws, rate constants and reaction order. Experimental techniques to monitor the reaction rate. Integrated rate law and derivations of rate expression for zero, first, second, third and pseudo order reactions.

Unit 2.             Chemical Kinetics 1I

Temperature dependence of reaction rate; Arrhenius equation. Activation energy. Elementary reactions and reaction mechanism. Consecutive elementary reactions. Theories of reaction rate Steady state approximation and Lindemann-Hinshelwood mechanism.

Unit 3.             Introduction to Electrochemistry

Fundamentals, uses, advantages, scope and applications of electrochemistry. Electrochemical system. Redox reaction. Spontaneous reactions. Liquid junction potential. Measurement of pH and pKa.

Unit 4.             Equilibrium Electrochemistry

Nernst’s equation. Thermodynamic of redox reactions. Half cell reaction and electrode. Electrochemical cells. The electromotive force (EMF). Standard electrode potential and its applications.

Unit 5.             Conductometry

Ions in solution. Measurement of conductance and Kohlrausch;s law. Mobility of ions and transport number. Conductometric titrations. Debye-Huckel theory and activity coefficient, Determination of activities, application of conductance measurement..

Unit 6.             Potentiometry

Basic principle. Working of Potentiometer, Types of electodes used; reference, indicator and counter electrodes. The pH meter. Working of glass membrane electrode and other types of electrode. Potentiometric titration.

Unit 7.             Coulometry and Voltammetry

Basic principle. Faraday;s law of electrolysis.Types of coulometry; controlled potential coulometry, controlled current coulometry. Voltammetry its types and applications.

Unit 8.             Surface Chemistry

Adsorption. Types of adsorption; Physical and chemical. .Adsorption isotherm and types; Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption isotherms.

Unit 9.             Nuclear Chemistry

Atomic nucleus. Nuclides. Nuclear stability. Modes of nuclear decay. Nuclear energetic. Fusion and fission. Non-spontaneous nuclear process. Nuclear reactors. Beta decay.

Books Recommended:

1.         R. Bajaj, Basic Concepts of Electrochemistry. Cyber Tech Publications, 2012.

2.         M.R. Wright, Fundamental Chemical kinetics; An Explanatory Introduction to the Concepts. Woodhead Publishing Limited, 2011.

3.         E. Gileadi, Physical Electrochemistry; Fundamentals, Techniques and Application.  Wiley-VCH, 2011.

4.         P. Atkins, J.D. Paula, Atkins Physical Chemistry, 9th ed., Oxford University Press, 2010.

5.         G.A. Somorjai,  Y. .Li, Introduction to Surface Chemistry and Catalysis, 2nd ed., John –Wiley &Sons, Inc., 2010.

6.         P. Atkins, L. Jones,L. Chemical Principles: The Quest for Insight, 5th ed., W.H.Freeman, New York, 2010.

7.         R.G. Compton, Understanding voltammetry. World Scientific, 2007.

8.         W. Loveland, D.J. Morrisey, G.T. Seaborg, Modern Nuclear Chemistry, John –Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2006.

9.         R.J. Silbey, R.A Alberty. M.G. Bawendi, Physical Chemistry, 4th ed., Join-Wiley & Sons, 2005.

10.       M.R. Wright, An Introduction to Chemical Kinetics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2004.

11.       D.W. Ball, Physical Chemistry, Brooke/Cole Co. Inc., 2003.

12.       A. Vertes, S. Nagy, Z. Klencsar,  Handbook of Nuclear Chemistry, Vol 1; Basics of Nuclear Science, 1st ed., Springer, 2003.

13.       G. Choppon, D.O.Lilijenzin, J. Rydberg, Radiochemistry and Nuclear Chemistry, 3rd ed., Butterworth- Heeinemann (2002).

14.       K.J. Laidler, J.H. Meiser,  Physical Chemistry, Houghton Miffin Company, 2002.

15.       S.R. Logan, Fundamentals of Chemical Kinetics, Longman Group Limited, 1996.

16.       K.J. Laidler, Chemical Kinetics, 3rd ed., Prentice Hall, 1987.


3. Organic Chemistry-I-2576

Course Code: 2576                                                         Credit Hours: 03

Unit 1.             Nomenclature of Organic Compounds

Classification of organic compounds. IUPAC nomenclature of simple, multifunctional, alicylic, bicyclic and benzonoid compounds.  

Unit 2.             Chemical Bonding I

Nature of atoms, atomic orbitals, and electronic configuration. Concept of Lewis formula and formal charge. Valance bond theory and orbital hybridization theory. Introduction to Molecular orbital theory. Ionic and covalent bonds.

Unit 3.             Chemical Bonding II

Concept of resonance, aromaticity, hyperconjugation, tautomerism, dipole moment and hydrogen bonding.

Unit 4.             Molecular Structure and Chemical  Reactivity    

Resonance, field effect, steric and medium effect. Linear free energy relationship like; The Hammett Equation and The Taft’s Equation, their applications and limitations.

Unit 5.             Acids and Bases

Concept of organic acids and bases. Scale of acidity and basicity. Pka and pH .The effect of structure on pKa. The effect of pH on the structure of organic molecules. Predicting acid / base reaction from pka values. Factors affecting the strength of acids and bases. Lewis acids and bases.

Unit 6.             Stereochemistry

Carbon–Carbon single bond free rotation, different types of strains in conformations. Restricted rotation in alkenes and cyclic systems. Configurations: Geometric isomerism, E/Z convention, optical activity and chirality, enantiomers diastereoisomers, R/S conventions, conformational analysis, Fischer projections, steric, and stereo electronic effects.

Unit 7.             Ultra-Violet and Visible Spectroscopy

Principles of Absorption spectroscopy. Theory of UV-visible spectroscopy, Selection Rules. Woodward-Fieser rules for conjugated dienes, enones and α,β unsaturated carbonyl compounds. Recording of UV spectra and their interpretation.

Unit 8.             Infra-red Spectroscopy

Theoy of Infra-red spectroscopy. Position, intensity and shape of Infrared absorption bands of organic functional groups. Recording and interpretation of IR spectra of organic molecules.

Unit 9.             Reactive Intermediates in Organic Synthesis

Knowledge about the structure, stability, generation, and reactivity of carbocations , carbanions, carbenes, nitrenes, benzynes, and free radicals with suitable examples.

Books Recommended:

1.       D.L.Pavia G.M. Lampman G.S. Kriz, J.R. Vyvyan, Introduction to Spectroscopy, 5th Edition. Brooks/Cole, Cengage Learning, USA, 2015.

2.         A. Henri and H. Powell, IUPAC Blue Book Nomenclature of Organic Chemistry-IUPAC Recommendations and Preferred Names 2013, Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge, UK, .2013.

3.         T.W.G. Solomons and C.B. Fryhle, Organic Chemistry, 10th Edition, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2011.

4.         J.M. Hornback, Organic Chemistry, 2nd Edition, Thompsons Brooks / Cole Publishing Company, USA, 2006.

4. Inorganic Chemistry-I-2577

Course Code: 2577                                                         Credit Hours: 03

Unit 1.             Principles of Chemical Bonding-I

Valence bond theory. The two-center electron-pair bond. Resonance. The states derived from electronic configurations.

Unit 2.             Principles of Chemical Bonding-II

Promotion energies to valence state. Hybridization. The overlap criterion of bond strength.

Unit 3.             Principles of Chemical Bonding-III

VSEPR model to explain the structures of AB2, AB3, AB2E, AB4, AB5, AB4E2, AB3E2, AB2E3, AB6, AB5E, AB4E2, AB7, AB6E, and AB8 type molecules. Drawbacks of VSEPR theory.

Unit 4.             Principles of Chemical Bonding-IV

                        Introduction. Molecular orbital theory. Application of diatomic and polyatomic molecules. Linear combination of atomic orbitals LCAO. Three-center bonding. 

Unit 5.             Metals and Intermetallic Compounds

                        Theories of bonding in metals. Conductors, insulators, and semiconductors. Interstitial and substitutional solid solutions.

Unit 6.             Inorganic Chemistry in Non-aqueous Media-I

Introduction. Classification of solvents. Types of reactions. Effect of physical and chemical properties of solvents on chemical reactions.

Unit 7.             Inorganic Chemistry in Non-aqueous Media-II

Comparison of water-ammonia system. Study of reactions in liquid ammonia.

Unit 8.             Inorganic Chemistry in Non-aqueous Media-III

Study of reactions in hydrogen fluoride, sulfuric acid, bromine trifluoride, and liquid sulfur dioxide.

Unit 9.             Inorganic Chemistry in Non-aqueous Media-IV

The structure of fused salts and oxides. Solution of elements in fused salts. Various chemical reactions in fused salts.

Books Recommended:

1.         C.E. Housecroft and A.G. Sharpe, Inorganic Chemistry, 2nd Edition, Prentice Hall, New York, 2005.

2.         J. R. Chipperfield,  Non-aqueous SolventsOxford University Press, 1999.

3.         J.D. Lee, Concise Inorganic Chemistry, 5th Edition, Chapman and Hall, 1996.

4.         F.A. Cotton, G. Wilkinson, Basic Inorganic Chemistry, John Willey, New York, 1994.

5.         J.E. Huheey, E.A. Kaiter and R.L. Kaiter, Inorganic Chemistry,  4th Edition, Harper Collins College Publishers, New York, 1993.

5. Mathematics for Chemists -2594

Course Code: 2594                                                         Credit Hours: 03

Unit 1.             Functions Limits and Continuity

Concept of function; Domain and range of functions; Composition of functions; Different types of functions; Graphs of functions. Limits and Continuity; Rules of finding limits and their applications.

Unit 2.             Differential Calculus-I

Average rate of change, Instantaneous rate of change, Concept of derivative; Rules of differentiation; Differentiation of algebraic, trigonometric, logarithmic and exponential functions, Higher order derivatives.

Unit 3.             Differential Calculus-II

Chain Rule, Maxima and Minima, Points of Inflection,   Partial differentiation of functions of two or more variables.

Unit 4.             Integral Calculus-I

Antiderivatives, Examples, Indefinite and definite integrals; Rules of Integration; Integration of algebraic and trigonometric functions.

Unit 5.             Integral Calculus-II

Techniques of integration, Substitution and by parts integration, Area under the curve and between the curves, Applications.

Unit 6.             Differential Equations

First order differential equations; Separation of variables; Solution of linear first order differential equations; Basic concept of second order differential equations, Differential equations in Chemistry.

Unit 7.             Series

Definitions, Types of Sequences and Series, Convergence of Series, Power Series.

Unit 8.             Matrices

Definitions, Types of Matrices, Basic operations on matrices, Determinants and Properties of Determinants, Inverses, Solving linear equations, Cramer’s Rule.

Unit 9.             Vectors

Scalar and vector quantities, Basic operations on vectors, examples,  Resolution of a vector into components, Direction cosines,  Multiplication of  vectors.

Recommended Books:

1.         M. C. Cockett, and G. Doggett Maths for Chemists, Vol. I & II, Royal Society of Chemistry, London, 2nd Edition 2012.

2.         P. Tebbutt, Basic Mathematics for Chemists, Wiley & Sons, 2001.

3.         L.Gornally, Essential Mathematics for Chemists, Prentice & Hall, 2000.

6. Chemistry Lab-I-2595

Course Code: 2595                                                         Credit Hours: 04

ORGANIC CHEMISTRY

Unit 1.             Introduction to Basic Laboratory Techniques

i.          Determination of solubility of organic compounds

ii.         Purification of organic compounds by recrystallization.

iii.        Purification of an organic compound by sublimation.

Unit 2.             Extraction

i.          Separation of a multicomponent mixture into the individual components by acid base extraction.

ii.         Extraction of natural products: Any two of the following

Caffeine, Nicotine, Piperine, Carotenoids, Curcumin, Citral

Unit 3.             Distillation

Purification of organic compounds by distillation

i.          Simple distillation

ii.         Fractional distillation

iii.        Vacuum distillation

iv.        Steam distillation

Unit 4.             Chromatography

i.          Analysis of analgesic drugs by TLC.

ii.        Purification of binary mixtures by thin layer chromatography (TLC) and column chromatography.

Unit 5.             Organic Synthesis/Preparations

Preparation of derivatives of organic compounds

i.          2,4-Dinitrophenyl hydrazone derivative of aldehydes / Ketones

ii.         4-Toluenesulphonate derivative of phenol

iii.        Esterification of carboxylic acids

iv.        Benzoylation of amines

Note:   Special emphasis on Risk and Safety protocols of chemicals involved and Waste management practices.

INORGANIC CHEMISTRY

Unit 6.             Inorganic Chemistry I

i.          Volumetric Analysis: Introduction and theory

ii.         Acid-Base titrations

iii.        Redox titrations

Unit 7.             Inorganic Chemistry II

i.          Iodometry and Iodimetry titrations

ii.         Complexometry titrations

Unit 8.             Inorganic Chemistry III

i.          Gravimetric Analysis: Introduction and theory

ii.         Single constituent gravimetric estimation

iii.        Two constituent gravimetric estimation

iv.        Three constituent gravimetric estimation

Unit 9.             Small scale Inorganic Preparations

i.          Tetraamminecopper(II) sulphate

ii.         Potassium trioxalatochromate(III)

iii.        Potassium trioxalatoaluminate(III)

iv.        cis-Potassium diaquadioxalatochromate(III)

Recommended Books:

1.         R. Rehman and H.N. Bhatti, Experimental Inorganic Chemistry, Caravan Book House, Lahore, Pakistan, 2015.

2.         D.L.Pavia, G.M. Lampman, G.S.Kriz and R.G. Engel, Introduction to Organic Laboratory Techniques- A microscale approach” 5thEdition, Saunders college publishing, New York, 2013.

3.         J.D. Wollins (Ed), Inorganic Experiments, 3rd ed., Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, 2010.

4.         A. Singh, Advanced Experimental Inorganic Chemistry, Campus Books, India, 2002.

5.         F.G.Mann and B.C.Saunders, “Practical Organic Chemistry-New impression” 4th Edition, Long Scientific and Technical, Longman Group U.k. Ltd., reprinted in 1994.

6.         A.I. Vogel, “Textbook of Practical Organic Chemistry: 4th Edition, 1992.

7.         Z. Szafran, R.M. Pike and M.M. Singh, Microscale Inorganic Chemistry: A Comprehensive Laboratory Experience, John Wiley & Sons, Canada, 1991.

1. Bio Chemistry- I-2578
2. Physical Chemistry -II-2580
3. Organic Chemistry -II-2581
4. In Organic Chemistry -II-2582
5. Chemistry Lab-II-2596

1

2

Semesters

Nil

Workshop

Laboratory Workshops Face to Face 

Thesis

Nil

Practical

Practical courses are conducted at the form of workshops in the end of each semester

Viva

Nil

About

The Allama Iqbal Open University was established in May, 1974, with the main objectives of providing educational opportunities to masses and to those who cannot leave their homes and jobs. During all these past years, the University has more than fulfilled this promise.